Research Shows Salt Substitutes Lower Risk of Heart Attack/Stroke and Death

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Analysis Exhibits Salt Substitutes Decrease Threat of Coronary heart Assault/Stroke and Demise

A pooled evaluation of the out there proof finds that dietary salt substitutes scale back the danger of coronary heart assault, stroke and loss of life from all causes and heart problems.

The researchers say the helpful results are prone to apply wherever on the earth.

In line with a pooled evaluation of accessible proof, dietary salt substitutes scale back the danger of coronary heart assault, stroke, and loss of life from all causes and heart problems. The outcomes have been revealed August 9 within the journal BMJ Coronary heart.

Researchers consider that the helpful results of those substitutes are prone to apply to folks around the globe.

Hypertension is a major danger issue for early loss of life, and heart problems is the main reason for loss of life worldwide. A weight-reduction plan excessive in sodium and low in potassium is thought to extend blood stress.

In line with researchers, roughly 1.28 billion folks worldwide endure from hypertension, though greater than half of them are undiagnosed.

Salt substitutes, which change a number of the sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl), are recognized to assist decrease blood stress.

A big research not too long ago revealed in China (Salt Substitute and Stroke Research; SSaSS) discovered that salt substitutes decreased the danger of coronary heart assault, stroke and untimely loss of life. Nonetheless, it was unclear whether or not these advantages would apply to different components of the world.

In an effort to shed some gentle on this, scientists scoured analysis databases for randomized medical trials revealed as much as the tip of August 2021 that reported the consequences of a salt substitute on blood stress. blood stress, cardiovascular well being and early loss of life.

Blood stress, measured in mm Hg, is made up of two numbers: systolic, the upper quantity that signifies how laborious the guts pumps blood all through the physique; and diastolic – the decrease quantity that signifies blood stress when the guts fills with blood.

They pooled the outcomes of 21 related worldwide medical trials involving practically 30,000 folks. These have been carried out in Europe, the Western Pacific Area, the Americas and South-East Asia.

Research durations lasted from 1 month to five years. The proportion of sodium chloride within the salt substitutes diversified from 33% to 75%; the proportion of potassium diversified from 25% to 65%.

In line with the pooled information evaluation, salt substitutes lowered blood stress in all individuals. The general systolic blood stress discount was 4.61 mm Hg and the general diastolic blood stress discount was 1.61 mm Hg.

Reductions in blood stress gave the impression to be constant no matter geography, age, gender, historical past of hypertension, weight (BMI), baseline blood stress, and baseline ranges of sodium and urinary potassium.

And each 10% decrease proportion of sodium chloride within the salt substitute was related to an extra 1.53 mm Hg drop in systolic blood stress and an extra 0.95 mm Hg drop in diastolic blood stress. There was no proof that consuming extra potassium was dangerous to well being.

A pooled information evaluation of the outcomes of 5 such trials involving greater than 24,000 individuals confirmed that salt substitutes decreased the danger of early loss of life from any trigger by 11%, heart problems by 13%, and the danger of coronary heart assault or stroke by 11%.

The scientists acknowledge some limitations to their findings, together with that the research within the pooled information evaluation diversified of their design and that there was comparatively little information for individuals who didn’t have hypertension.

However they nonetheless level out that their findings echo these of SSaSS, the biggest trial ever of a potassium-enriched salt substitute to this point.

“Since blood stress reducing is the mechanism by which salt substitutes confer their cardiovascular safety, the constant reductions in blood stress noticed help the generalization of the cardiovascular protecting impact noticed in SSaSS to each outdoors of China and past,” the authors write.

“These findings are unlikely to replicate the sport of likelihood and help the adoption of salt substitutes in medical follow and public well being coverage as a method to scale back dietary sodium consumption, enhance dietary potassium consumption , decrease blood stress and forestall main cardiovascular occasions,” the researchers conclude.

Reference: “Results of Salt Substitutes on Scientific Outcomes: A Systematic Evaluate and Meta-Evaluation” by Xuejun Yin, Anthony Rodgers, Adam Perkovic, Liping Huang, Ka-Chun Li, Jie Yu, Yangfeng Wu, JHY Wu, Matti Marklund, Mark D Huffman, J Jaime Miranda, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Darwin Labarthe, Paul Elliott, Maoyi Tian and Bruce Neal, August 9, 2022, Coronary heart.
DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2022-321332


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