Abstract of Steering for Minimizing the Impression of COVID-19 on Particular person Individuals, Communities, and Well being Care Programs — United States, August 2022
COVID-19 Prevention Methods
Monitor neighborhood ranges of COVID-19 to information COVID-19 prevention efforts. Individuals can use details about the present stage of impression of COVID-19 on their neighborhood to resolve which prevention behaviors to make use of and when (always or at particular instances), based mostly on their very own threat of significant sickness and that of the members of their family, their threat tolerance and the elements particular to the milieu. The CDC’s COVID-19 Neighborhood Ranges replicate the present impact of COVID-19 on communities and determine geographic areas that will expertise a rise in extreme COVID-19-related outcomes, based mostly on hospitalization charges, hospital mattress occupancy and incidence of COVID-19 within the earlier interval. interval*** (1). Prevention suggestions based mostly on COVID-19 neighborhood ranges have the express targets of decreasing medically necessary sickness and limiting the pressure on the healthcare system. In any respect COVID-19 neighborhood ranges (low, medium and excessive), suggestions emphasize staying updated with vaccinations, enhancing air flow, testing symptomatic individuals and those that have been uncovered, and to isolate contaminated individuals. On the common COVID-19 neighborhood stage, beneficial methods embody including protections for these at excessive threat of extreme sickness (e.g., utilizing masks or respirators that present a better stage of safety). On the excessive neighborhood stage of COVID-19, extra suggestions concentrate on all individuals carrying masks indoors in public and additional strengthen safety for high-risk populations.††† As SARS-CoV-2 continues to flow into, adjustments in neighborhood ranges of COVID-19 for a jurisdiction assist point out when the usage of sure prevention methods must be discontinued or elevated, relying on the extent of threat of significant sickness of an individual or that of his family or social contacts. The COVID-19 Neighborhood Ranges present a basic framework that public well being officers and jurisdictions can use and adapt as wanted based mostly on the native context by combining native data to evaluate the necessity for public well being interventions.
Non-pharmaceutical interventions. Implementing a number of prevention methods helps shield people and communities from publicity to SARS-CoV-2 and reduces the danger of medically important sickness and dying by decreasing the danger of an infection (desk). Implementation of a number of non-pharmaceutical preventive interventions can complement the usage of vaccines and therapies, significantly as neighborhood ranges of COVID-19 enhance and amongst these at excessive threat of extreme illness. The CDC’s COVID-19 prevention suggestions not differentiate based mostly on an individual’s vaccination standing, as breakthrough infections do happen, though they’re often delicate (16), and individuals who have had COVID-19 however aren’t vaccinated have a point of safety in opposition to severe sickness from their earlier an infection (17). Along with beneficial methods in any respect COVID-19 neighborhood ranges, schooling and messaging to assist individuals perceive their threat of medically important sickness enhances suggestions for risk-based prevention methods.
An infection take a look at in progress. Diagnostic checks can determine infections at an early stage in order that contaminated individuals can take steps to scale back their threat of transmitting the virus and obtain therapy, if clinically indicated, to scale back their threat of significant sickness and dying. All individuals ought to get examined for an energetic an infection when they’re symptomatic or have identified or suspected publicity to somebody with COVID-19. When contemplating implementing testing for asymptomatic individuals with no identified publicity, and the place, public well being officers would possibly think about prioritizing high-risk congregate settings, resembling long-term care amenities. period, homeless shelters and correctional amenities, and work environments that embody congregate settings. housing with restricted entry to medical care.§§§ In a majority of these high-risk gathering locations, screening checks might complement diagnostic testing of symptomatic individuals by figuring out asymptomatic contaminated individuals (18,19). When carried out, testing methods ought to embody all individuals, no matter their vaccination standing. Testing might not be cost-effective on the whole neighborhood settings, particularly if the prevalence of COVID-19 is low (20,21).
Insulation. Symptomatic or contaminated individuals ought to self-isolate promptly, and contaminated individuals ought to stay remoted for ≥ 5 days and put on a well-fitting, high-quality masks or respirator in the event that they should be round different individuals. Contaminated individuals could finish isolation after 5 days, solely after they have been fever-free for ≥ 24 hours with out the usage of medicine and all different signs have improved, and they need to proceed to put on a masks or a respirator round others at dwelling and in public per day 10¶¶¶ (Determine) (22,23). Individuals who have entry to antigen testing and select to make use of testing to find out after they can cease masking ought to wait to take the primary take a look at till not less than day 6 and are fever-free for ≥ 24 hours with out the usage of anti-fever medicine and all different signs improved. Utilizing two antigen checks with ≥ 48 hours between checks supplies extra dependable data on account of improved take a look at sensitivity (24). Two consecutive take a look at outcomes should be detrimental for individuals to cease masking. If one of many take a look at outcomes is constructive, individuals ought to proceed to put on a masks round others and proceed testing each 48 hours till they’ve two consecutive detrimental outcomes. ****
Administration of SARS-CoV-2 exposures. The CDC now recommends case investigation and call tracing solely in well being care settings and sure high-risk congregational settings.†††† In all different circumstances, public well being efforts can concentrate on case notification and offering data and assets to these in danger concerning entry to testing. Individuals who have had latest confirmed or suspected publicity to an contaminated particular person ought to put on a masks for 10 days round others when indoors in public and must be examined ≥ 5 days after publicity (or extra early, if symptomatic), no matter their vaccination standing .§§§§ Given the excessive ranges of anti-SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence within the inhabitants (seven,16), and to restrict the social and financial impacts, quarantine of uncovered individuals is not beneficial, no matter vaccination standing.